MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) have attracted attention as a promising tool for regenerative medicine and transplantation therapy. MSCs exert neuroprotective effects by secreting a number of factors in vitro and in vivo. Similar characteristics are found in ADSCs (adipose-derived stem cells) and BMSCs (bone marrow stromal cells). Multipotent capability, easy accessibility and rapid proliferation of ADSCs have been established. Our main objective was to compare cell viability, growth rate, expression of neurotrophic factors and nestin genes in ADSCs and BMSCs. Cell doubling time and proliferation rate indicate that ADSCs has a higher proliferation rate than BMSCs. ADSCs and BMSCs express a similar pattern of CD71 and CD90 markers. Nestin immunostaining showed that ADSCs and BMSCs are immunopositive. The expression of neurotrophic factors genes in ADSCs proved similar to that of BMSCs genes. Thus adipose tissue stem cells with a high proliferation rate can express nestin and neurotrophic factor genes. Therefore ADSCs may be useful in future cell replacement therapies and help improve neurodegenerative diseases.