Background: Adipose tissue represents an accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells (Adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells-ADSCs). ADSCs could be differentiated into various mesenchymal stem cells (e.g. chondrocytes, adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neuronal lineages). Neurotrophic factors are diffusible polypeptides that have a critical role in survival, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. This study aimed to evaluate the proliferative capacity and the expression of some neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), nerve growth factor (NGF) and the expression of nestin in ADSCs.
Materials and Methods: Rat ADSCs were isolated from the subcutaneous adipose tissue using mechanical and enzymatic digestion. These cells were cultured in αMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. ADSCs of the third passage were evaluated by immunocytochemistry to detect the cell surface markers of CD90 and nestin. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to study the expression of the above-mentioned neurotrophic factors in the ADSCs. Moreover, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs were induced in-vitro.
Results: The assessment of ADSCs identity and purity showed that 90% and 80% of the stem cells were positive for CD90 marker and nestin, respectively. According to RT-PCR results, the above-mentioned neurotrophic factors were expressed in these stem cells. Furthermore, a small number of cells were positive for cresyl violet staining.