In this paper, we consider the determination of an unknown radiation term in the nonlinear boundary condition of a linear heat equation from an overspecified condition. First we study the existence and uniqueness of the solution via an auxiliary problem. Then a numerical method consisting of zeroth-, first-, and second-order Tikhonov regularization method to the matrix form of Duhamel’s principle for solving the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) using temperature data containing significant noise is presented. The stability and accuracy of the scheme presented is evaluated by comparison with the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method. Some numerical experiments confirm the utility of this algorithm as the results are in good agreement with the exact data.